India is the world’s most geographically diverse country. So different types of forests are found in India. Among all the other diversities, 24.5 % of the total forest area covered in India is of the country’s total landmass.
According to the Forest Survey of India, Madhya Pradesh has the largest and biggest forest and wildlife lands.
Different Types of Forests in India
Difference Between Tropical Evergreen and Tropical Deciduous Forest
The main difference between Tropical Evergreen Forest vs Tropical Deciduous Forest are:
|Tropical Evergreen Forest||Tropical Deciduous Forest|
|The tropical evergreen forest comprises evergreen trees like mahogany, rosewood, ebony, etc.||The tropical deciduous forest comprises deciduous trees like oak, sandalwood, maple, etc.|
|These forests thrive where the annual rainfall is over 200 mm.||These forests thrive where the annual rainfall ranges from 70 mm to 200 mm.|
|Trees in evergreen forests don’t shed their leaves.||Trees in deciduous forests shed leaves to survive the cold and dry seasons.|
|Tropical evergreen forests are also known as Rain Forest.||Tropical deciduous forests are also called Monsoon forests.|
|Common wildlife sighted in the forest are elephants, deer, monkeys, lemurs, etc.||Common wildlife sighted in the forest are tigers, lions, etc.|
|Evergreen forests are dense and temperature-sensitive.||Deciduous Forests are not dense and rainfall-sensitive.|
|The soil in these forests lacks essential nutrients.||The soil in these forests is abundant with essential minerals and nutrients.|
Different Types of Natural Vegetation in India
There are different kinds of forests in India. Environmentalists worldwide have described India as called the greenest country in the world. The Himalayas in the north are home to evergreen forests in India. The types are:-
- Tropical Evergreen Forests
- Deciduous or Rain Forests
- Dry Deciduous Forests
- Mountain Forests
- Tidal or Mangrove Forests
- Semi-Desert and Desert Vegetation
Mostly, dry thorn and tropical deciduous forests are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, and a few areas of Maharashtra In India.
We can find mangrove forests in India too. The tidal or mangrove forests of Sundarban, West Bengal, are a top-rated tourist attraction of the state. In the peninsular area and the islands of Port Blair Andaman and Nicobar, thick tropical evergreen rain forests exist. Thus, the entire country is more or less filled with natural greenery all over.
How many forests are there in India?
There are 106 forests are recorded in India, and cover a total area of 712,249 sq km of the country’s land. This data is about the latest ISFR report.
Forest Survey of India (FSI)
The Government of India established the Forest Survey of India in 1965 as Pre- Investment Survey of Forest Resources or PISFR. This organisation was later reformed as Forest Survey of India on 1st June 1981.
It’s an organisation that operates under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and keeps a record of the country’s forest resources. The organisation’s principal role is to conduct surveys on the forest lands of India and assess forest cover and inventory, monitor forest fire and development projects and many more. It has a headquarter in Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh.
Recorded Forest Area (RFA)
Recorded Forest Area is a term used to denote the total area of a country officially recorded as a forest by the Government. Specific regions such as national parks, reserved forests and sanctuaries. Thus it provides us with information on how much forest land is being actively used or protected by the Government. India’s Recorded Forest Area or RFA is 7,12,249 sq km, and it makes up 21.67% of the country’s total landmass.
Centre for Policy Research (CPR)
The Centre for Policy Research or CPR is a public organisation dedicated to research established in 1973. It’s a non-profit organisation conducting detailed research independently about the public interest.
It’s a public think tank run by academics from different fields. These professionals express their valuable views and insights on relatable topics. It helps people to understand more about important and complex issues of the contemporary world.
India State of Forest Report (ISFR)
India State of Forest Report is a report on Indian forests released by the Forest Survey of India. It’s a biennial report that comes out once every two years. The report describes India’s total forest cover, estimation of trees, types of forests etc. The last ISFR came out in 2019, according to which India’s entire forest cover is 21.67%.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The rapid deterioration in the environment and climate is mainly due to human intervention and activities. As time passes, the problem grows even bigger. To keep a check on climate change, the United Nations established a secretariat named UNFCCC or United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It was established in 1992 in Geneva and shifted to Bonn, Germany, in 1995. This secretariat works with the Governments of leading nations in introducing various norms to regulate climate change and save nature.
World Forest Day
Nature is an essential gift to humanity. The United Nations General Assembly chose March 21 as the International Day of Forests or World Forest Day to preserve this gift. This day is celebrated to remind every human of the importance of forests and raise awareness towards their restoration and safeguarding.
Even though this idea has been there since 1971, the event was first globally celebrated in 2012. The UN encourages all countries to put in efforts to conserve all types of trees and forests on local, national and international levels. The United Nations Forum on Forests and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations are the main organizers of this event.
Forestry in India
Forestry is an essential part of Indian society, and it has played a significant role in rural areas since ancient times. India is considered among the top ten countries in forest coverage. The Forest Department works tirelessly by disease controlling, protecting forests against wildfires, deforestation etc., to maintain these forests. Mizoram has the most forest cover in percentage while Haryana has the lowest.
Type of least montane forests in India
India has three types of montane forests- temperate forests, wet temperate forests, and alpine forests. Important trees are found in the mountain forest, and these forests are ferns, maples, oaks, rhododendrons, chilgoza, juniper, deodar, etc. These forests are found in Mizoram, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya, etc.
Different goals and opportunities of forest in independent India
- Reduce soil degradation and erosion (especially in coastal lowlands, mountainous terrain, treeless areas and Rajasthan).
- Make improvements in the management of land to allow sustainability.
- Planting and maintaining trees outside forest areas to improve climate conditions.
- Increase the production of timber (for industry, communication & defence).
- Enhance annual forest revenue
- Meet the demand for grazing land, fuelwood and wood.
Forest-related Indian movies
- The jungle book
How many evergreen forests thrive year after year in India?
|Tropical Wet Evergreen||20,054||2.61|
|Tropical Dry Evergreen||937||0.12|
|Sub Tropical Dry Evergreen||180||0.02|
Last year the forest cover in India increased by 2.4%.
The Forest Man of India grows how many plants?
Jadav Payeng, also known as Molai Payeng, won the “Indian Forest Man” title through his hard work. He spent thirty years creating an artificial forest and planted over 40 million trees. The barren sandbar of Brahmaputra (550 hectares) is now covered with trees and is known as ‘Molai Kathoni’.
Regarding forest distribution, what is the ranking of Karnataka in India?
Karnataka is India’s 6th largest forest state in terms of area, and Karnataka has 38,575 square kilometres under forest cover.
What is the area of coniferous forests in India?
In India, the coniferous forest covers an area of 27,500 sq km (10,600 sq mi). Out of the total area, 34.69% of the coniferous falls under protected areas. These forests grow in North Indian states and the Middle East Himalayas (upper & middle altitudes).
How much forest is destroyed in India from 1952 to 1972?
In the 1950s, the forest cover in India was 82.5 million hectares (25.82%). This percentage dropped significantly in the 1970s, and India’s forest cover was reduced to 74.3 million hectares (23.24%) in the 1970s.
List of 43 best forests in India
- Kaziranga National Park Assam
- Jim Corbett National Park Uttarakhand
- Gir National Park Gujarat
- Ranthambore National Park Rajasthan
- Manas National Park Assam
- Dudhwa National Park Uttar Pradesh
- Nagarhole National Park Karnataka
- Pench National Park Madhya Pradesh
- Sanjay Gandhi National Park Mumbai
- Periyar National Park Kerala
- Eravikulam National Park Kerala
- Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh
- Great Himalayan National Park Himachal Pradesh
- Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Goa
- Sundarban National Park West Bengal
- Simlipal National Park Orissa
- Guindy National Park Chennai
- Bhitarkanika National Park Odisha
- Rajaji National Park Uttarakhand
- Panna National Park Madhya Pradesh
- Keibul Lamjao National Park Manipur
- Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka
- Silent Valley National Park Kerala
- Sariska Tiger Reserve Rajasthan
- Pilibhit Tiger Reserve Uttar Pradesh
- Turahalli Forest Bangalore
- Sultanpur National Park Haryana
- Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary Goa
- Betla National Park Jharkhand
- Orang National Park Guwahati
- Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim
- Bandipur Tiger Reserve Bangalore
- Buxa Tiger Reserve West Bengal
- Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Assam
- Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh
- Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary Kerala
- Parambikulam Tiger Reserve Kerala
- Kanha Tiger Reserve Madhya Pradesh
- Satpura Tiger Reserve Madhya Pradesh
- Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
- Chintamani Kar bird sanctuary
- Ballavpur Wildlife Sanctuary
- Valki Machan Forest
List of 13 Best Bird Sanctuary in India
- Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary (also known as Keoladeo National Park) Rajasthan
- Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary, Puri (Odisha)
- Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary, Karnataka
- Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary (also known as Vembanad bird sanctuary ) Kerala
- Kaundinya Bird Sanctuary, Chittor (Andhra Pradesh)
- Mayani Bird Sanctuary, Satara (Maharashtra)
- Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
- Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, Nellore (Andhra Pradesh)
- Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu
- Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary, Karnataka
- Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Gurgaon (Haryana)
- Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Chorao Island (Goa)
- Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu
These days, due to rapid globalization, Indian forests are under constant threat. The government has announced a list of protected forests distributed across the country looked after by forest inspectors to evade this danger.
The forest department of India strictly maintains these forests. Outsiders are not allowed in without a special permit. The government and some private organisations jointly look after some forests. These are termed as unclassed forests of India. Local communities whose livelihood is based on these forests also actively protect the forests.
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